Hearts: The Transnational Crime. Click for detail
Clubs: Interregional Crime Level. Click for detail
Diamonds: Crime at the federal level. Click for detail
Spades: Crime at the regional level. Click for detail
Born December 16, 1959 in Moscow; Russian. His father, Evgeny Nikolaevich — PhD in technical sciences, was Professor at MVTU. His mother Maria Sergeevna - a professor of English at MGIMO in Soviet Foreign Ministry. He finished the English specialized school number 17. In the school he studied in the same class with Alexander Mamut. In 1977 he entered the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO), and graduated in 1982. He studied in the eighth English-Spanish group of monetary-financial department of economic faculty at MGIMO. In 1984 he graduated from the KGB Red Banner Institute of the USSR. After MGIMO he worked at the Institute of Economics of the world socialist system (IEMSS) USSR. Since 1983 — he served in the First Main Directorate (PGU) of the KGB of the USSR (foreign intelligence). From 1987 to 1992 he worked in the Soviet Embassy in the UK attaché (1987-88), third secretary (1988-90), Second Secretary, Embassy (1990-92). He was engaged in "analytical" espionage.
In 1992-1993 he was representative of the bank «Compagnie Financiera Tradison» (Switzerland) in the CIS. He had internship in the British and Swiss banks.
In autumn 1994 RIFK acquired National Reserve Bank (NRB) which beforehand had been subsidiary of the Bank "National Reserve" by Oleg Boyko . In fact RIFK bought NRB for banking license (which NRB had, but RIFK didn't). Shares bought in NRB had been acquired by the clients of RIFK — RAO “Gazprom», «Gazexport» and a number of foreign economic associations. At the same time RIFK separated from the «Imperial» bank.
Since March 1, 1995 to January 2004 - Chairman of the Board of NRB (18 March 1999 to January 2004 - the president of the bank).
At the IV congress of the Movement «Our Home- Russia"(NDR) by Viktor Chernomyrdin in April 1997 he was elected a member of the political council of the NDR.
Since 1997 - Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors of the National Reserve Bank (NRB, Chairman of the Council was representative of «Gazprom» Vyacheslav Sheremet).
April 24, 1999 at the VI Congress of the NDR he was re-elected member of the political council of the NDR; elected as one of the Vice-Chairmen of the NDR by Chernomyrdin.
On May 27, 2000 at the founding congress of the "Unity" was elected a member of the central political council of the party.
Staring from June 2000 till May 2003 - Member of the Board of Directors of RAO «UES of Russia».
Since January 2002 - Member of the Board of Directors of OAO "Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (FGC).
Since January 2003 - Member of the Board of Directors of the Bank "Voronezh", purchased by Lebedev's structures in 2001.
In 2003, he combined the major-controlled assets into the «National Reserve Corporation» (NRC).
In August 2003 he ran for mayor of Moscow.
In December 7, 2003 he was elected to the State Duma of the fourth convocation elected from the party lists of the block "Motherland".
Since the end of 2003 till July 2007 - a member of the party "United Russia"
January 21, 2004 resigned the post of chairman of the National Reserve Bank (NRB) due to his election a State Duma deputy.
In June 2007, moved from the "United Russia" to the party "Fair Russia".
In 2008, the holding company by Lebedev «National Reserve Corporation» assessed the value of its assets at 5.5 billion dollars.
In January 2009, he bought 75 % stake of Evening Standard at Associated Newspapers.
Alexander Lebedev's personal fortune was estimated at 3.5 billion dollars.
In Britain he owns 75% stake of Evening Standard, and is negotiating to buy The Independent and Independent on Sunday.
In Ukraine he owns shares of Energobank and insurance company, as well as resort with 235 rooms, resort-recreational complex "Almond Grove", and four-star hotel "Glory." In addition, he owns several boutique hotels in France, Italy, and Switzerland.
In Germany he owns 48 % of the budget airline «Blue Wings».
In Switzerland he owns aircraft leasing Airstream.
In Russia, along with former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev he owns 49 % stake in the opposition newspaper «Novaya Gazeta». He is selling his 26% stake of «Aeroflot» to the Russian government for 550 million dollars and 26% of aircraft leasing company «Ilyushin» to the Bank for Foreign Economic Activity (chairman Vladimir Putin) for 177 million dollars. He owns a major stake in the state gas giant «Gazprom». His "National Land Company» owns 45 000 hectares of farmland. In addition, he is the sole owner of the National Housing Corporation.
In the media there is evidence that Alexander Lebedev began his business career having £ 400 in his pocket. They wrote that he was selling everything - from shoes to real estate. The most exotic episode of his activities was manufacturing of barbed wire for zones and selling it to NATO peacekeepers in Mogadishu. Lebedev reportedly loves to recall it: a vivid detail is the key to successful PR.
Press wrote about how Alexander Lebedev "played for" the founders of the National Reserve Bank ". It is reported that in 1992 the bank "Kairos"was founded . Shareholders in the new-born structure became Natalia Arkhipova, Gennadiy Petrukhin, Oleg Pirojkov, and Eugene Barihov representing the company "Aretiks». In 1994, the bank "Kairos" changed the owner; And then it acquired another name: the National Reserve Bank (NRB). Eventually NRB got new owners - «Gazprom» and «Gazexport». By the time, two shareholders had dropped out - Natalia Arkhipova and Gennadiy Petrukhin.
Each of the four shareholders of "kairos" owned 25% of the capital which at the time of the bank registration amounted to 3 million rubles, or about $ 6000 at the rate of the time. According to the protocol of the "Kairos"shareholders meeting from July 15, 1993, the former shareholders decided to introduce into the team of the then working «National Credit» and a number of structures affiliated with it. At the same time they increased an authorized capital of the bank, so that the equities of former shareholders turned into nothing. In 1994 when being re-registered the bank was renamed in NRB, and the former shareholders were withdrown from the founders. Moreover,according to press reports, Arkhipova and Petrukhin claimed that during the fateful meeting they had noteven been in the capital, and, accordingly, they could not have signed any treaties of new bank shareholders joining.
It is reported that Lebedev made his first big money on debt obligations, known as "MinFin bonds» (“vebovka”). Lebedev and Kostin created a Russian investment and finance company (RIFK). Since 1993 RIFK on a management basis became a part of the AB "Imperial" (one of its founders was a classmate of Lebedev - Alexander Mamut and his company "Company Project Financing" (COPF). Lebedev became the head of department on foreign investments of the bank. As they wrote, the essence of the scheme with «MinFin bonds” was that debts of state enterprises got privatized by a private company which then presented a bill for payment to the state.
Former chairman of Imperial Sergei Rodionov told in an interview that after the Soviet Union collapse debts of the Vnesheconombank to the Russian importers had been frozen, and debts to commercial banks should have been repaid. To convert the debt into cash in April 1993 the firm «Technopomimport» sold one of its debts at an undervalued rate - at $ 15 million to a new bank of Mamut - "Company on Project Financing "(COPF). That, in turn, pledged to put that debt to the share capital of Bank «Lefortovsky” in which Mamut was an advisor and co-owner. And meanwhile they demanded "MinFin bonds" for the full amount of the debt with from the "Imperial", where the "Technopomimport" had been holding its accounts. Economists calculated that due to exchange rate differences budget lost $ 8.8 million. According to Rodionov, along with KOPF Lebedev and Kostin also did a vanishing act from "Imperial" and earned through the "MinFin» bonds in the bank just like Mamut did. They wrote that the story ended luckily enough for Lebedev: enterprising financier had been noticed in high spheres, they did not reprimand him for fraud, but on the contrary began to actively promote him at the oligarchic stairs. Otherwise, as reported, it is difficult to explain the fact that it was Lebedev who headed the «National Reserve Bank» in 1995 , which was largest shareholder was "Gazprom".
Retrieved from "Compromising" from 19.11.2003, "Êîìïðîìàò.Ru" from 27.01.2005
The press described the story about central bank with NBR credited the Ministry of Finance, and doing that was generally prohibited. As the press reported, the Deputy Finance Minister Andrei Vavilov told about the circumstances of the story in his statement to the Prosecutor General. They wrote that Vavilov described the transaction carried out in August 1996. According to Vavilov, there were other participants involved along with him: the Central Bank chairman Sergei Dubinin, Eurobank and National Reserve Bank (NRB). According to Vavilov, in a result of the complicated financial transaction NRB gained an opportunity to earn $ 170 million. However, Vavilov prevented it despite requests of Dubinin. In his statement the former deputy finance minister pointed out that two days after the last conversation with the chairman of the Central Bank his official SAAB had been blown up.
As reported, in a while the case on $ 170 million which NRB never received was softpedaled.
The name of Alexander Lebedev was mentioned in the press in connection with high-profiled case about the a copier box full of money which had been carried out of Government House for election campaign of Boris Yeltsin in 1996 and promotion of the party «Our Home is Russia ".
"MK" wrote that according to the documents available for the edition, almost all the money spent on Yeltsin's campaign and promotion of «Our house is Russia» on parliamentary elections, had been received from the state budget. Then it was laundered through offsets between Gazprom and the Ministry of Finance. Big role in those schemes was assigned to the National Reserve Bank. And the box of copier, as journalists claimed according to the documents, was refilled by members of UXO.
It was reported that there was only one bank fixed in the journal of the money inflow for the campaign activities payments of the Party «Our Home is Russia" - National Reserve Bank. The daily revenue reached up to $ 4 million.
None of commercial bank could have withstand such costs, as the press wrote. But when the head of the Central Bank became Sergei Dubinin launched a scheme which allowed this to happen (he originated from the "Imperial" like the head of the NRB Lebedev ). In addition, the accounts of UXO had about 55 million dollars received.
According to press reports, another scandal involving NRB dates back to 1997. In July, prosecutors filed a criminal charge of tax evasion by UXO. A former citizen of Russia, former submariner Igor Fedorov claimed about the crime. In its turn NRB accused Fedorov of stealing several million dollars.
As press reported, at the moment of the statement writing Igor Fedorov born in 1952 lived in the United States as a stateless person. In his explanation he indicated that several heads of the National Reserve Bank carried out a series of deals through their relations in the government offices (former Deputy Finance Minister Vavilov). Those deals supposed that internal currency bonds (OVVZ) got used both in Russia and abroad (Switzerland, USA). As Fedorov argued , the stated above people had transferred about $ 30 million abroad on accounts of specially created companies that were used to launder unlawfully obtained proceeds.
According to media reports, investigation found out who was involved in those transactions. Those were: Lebedev Aleksandr Evgenyevich (Chairman of NRB), Kostin Andrey Leonidovich (former Vice Chairman of the Board of NRB, the head of Vnesheconombank) and the Shvedsky Roman Lyvovich (Advisor to Chairman of the Board of UXO). The essence of criminal financial transactions was described as follows: through connections in the Ministry of Finance of Russia Lebedev acquired internal currency bonds for $ 190 million (in nominal value of $ 1 billion), that was 19% of their actual value, while in the market those securities were traded in the range of 30% at the time of purchase. Supposedly representatives of the bank had already gained potential benefit of $ 110 million. To hide the proceeds received from the sale of securities, Shvedsky and Kostin concluded an oral agreement with Fedorov. The latter opened and registered several companies in offshore areas upon their request.
The further scheme, according to investigators, existed in order to disguise the true owner of OVVZ - National Reserve Bank - in transactions of transfer of currency abroad. As reported, the investigation concluded that the National Reserve Bank had entered into formal agreements with Fedorov on exchange of OVVZ 6 and 7 trenches to the bonds of the 5th trench. In fact, all funds received from sales of OVVZ, as directed by Shvedsky and Kostin, Fedorov credited to the correspondent account of the Bank «American International» in Mosbusinessbank in favor of the opened firms. Then also on oral instructions the currency was transferred to the accounts of campaigns on the Cayman Islands. And in the end it fell on the firms' accounts in different banks in Switzerland. One of the companies was called "Lebeko", which literally meant "Lebedev and Kostin.
In his explaination to General Prosecutor Office of Russia Fedorov wrote: to destroy the traces of their illegal activities, as well as witnesses his "partners" intended to put Fedorov out of the way as soon as he completed all the planned transfers of currency abroad. In the course of the cooperation with Lebedev and Kostin, wrote Fedorov, they stole all the contracts confirming his role in transactions with OVVZ, and obligations of Lebedev and Kostin to pay his mediation services. After Fedorov became aware of it, in his words, he decided to break off relations with the companions.
At the time of the "partnership" breaking the accounts of the companies managed only by Fedorov numbered more than $ 7 million from the sale of OVVZ. According to the investigation, to recover the stolen funds the former companions of Fedorov forged documents on behalf of Mosbusinessbank; they indicated that Fedorov got a loan in that bank and maliciously refuses to repay it. The counterfeits were sent to the arbitration courts of Great Britain (London), Switzerland (Zurich) and the U.S. (Baltimore), which ruled in favor of the plaintiffs.
The Russian General Prosecutor's Office opened a criminal case N «18/171845 under Article 199, Part 2 of the Criminal Code of Russia (the repeated tax evasion of organizations). The case was investigated by the Investigation Department in the General Prosecutor's Office.
The media wrote: In order to find Fedorov, Lebedev hired several well-known detective agencies. But Fedorov disappeared from his house in Norfolk. He became unavailable for Lebedev. That did not stop him from appearing in front of reporters here and there. For the "head" Fedorova, or at least for any information about his whereabout Lebedev's people reportedly offered the American associates and lawyers a fugitive from 200 to 500 thousand dollars. All in vain.
When Lebedev had won lawsuits in the foreign arbitrations he immediately withdrew them. In this regard the media supposed: he did it considering that it was not very prestigious to be played for — they would no longer respect him. After that the press was full of articles that it was not Fedorov who had stiffed Lebedev, and vice versa - a poor submariner had been a victim of dirty tricks of the financier and had been forced to hire a staff of private security guards.
Igor Fedorov reportedly settled in America on the millions gained. In 2002 he wrote a statement to the new Russian General Prosecutor Ustinov in which he said that all the statements having made to the previous General Prosecutor Skuratov - accusations against Lebedev and his companions — was a lie without any basis.
Media reported on participation of Alexander Lebedev in a scandal which occurred because of the film with a man "similar to the former Prosecutor General Yury Skuratov» having fun with girls of easy virtue.
The scandal began in winter 1999 when the record had been shown on television. In April 2, 1999, Yeltsin signed a decree on dismissal of Yuri Skuratov. Skurotov was prosecuted for abuse of power.
In this regard, the media reported that there had been a criminal case of fraud for the National Reserve Bank (NRB) headed by Alexander Lebedev in progress of the Prosecutor General Skuratov that time.
Reportedly in this case there were three directions: scam of money transfer to overseas accounts, establishment of companies by NRB management to take advantage of them for unreasonably increasing of the bank's capital and illegal obtaining licenses for NRB leaders for gun and for private security.
According to media reports, the first direction investigation could have been most frightening for Lebedev. He tried to hush up the case, as reported in the media. When the agreement failed, Lebedev began to look for compromising about Skuratov. Incidentally, as reported, Skuratov said that Lebedev was involved in his "deposition" by organizing surveillance.
They wrote that, according to rumors, the security company "Konus" guarding NRB ( to the establishment of which Lebedev had been related) began surveillance of family members of the prosecutor. They wrote that the results of that work appeared in the Internet and that Skuratov asked the Minister of Interior Rushailo to investigate the situation. As a result, management of "P" MIA of Russia found out that the security firm "Konus" located all available information through the foreign servers.
They wrote that neither investigation nor expertise did not confirm the version of Lebedev's involvement in the scandalous filming. Although there was plenty of circumstantial evidence. For example, several firms of Lebedev located not far from "the bad apartment." The shooting equipment was designed for a short reception. There was a witness who said she contacted with people of Lebedev and he was in the house, where the record was made. Lebedev was reportedly interrogated, but without any consequences for him.
According to press reports, Lebedev used "black" technologies when he ran for mayor of Moscow in 2003. Media wrote that during the election campaign an unprecedented action started which could have been explained only as an attempt to bribe voters. The action reportedly was associated with a candidate for mayor of the capital, the team leader of NRB Alexander Lebedev. Press wrote that during the week the mailboxes of Muscovites had been thrown with electoral cards. There was a depiction of smiling Lebedev arm-wrestling with a man in cap. One could easily guess Mayor Yuri Luzhkov in the second hero, told the media. The slogan on the postcards was: "The best is a friend of 'good'." Obviously Lebedev was implied under the best candidate, reporters concluded.
There was one nuance featuring Lebedev's cards from other campaign materials, the press wrote - they were numbered, that was each card contained a unique group of numbers. Thus, as reported, postcards became something of a lottery ticket. The media also reported that after distribution of cards mobile groups of citizens posing as members of the electoral headquarters of Lebedev allegedly visited apartments, and gave out valuable prizes - household appliances and even money in the amount of 50-100 dollars. However, not all the owners of cards got the prizes, but only those whose cards contained a "fortunate" set of numbers. It was reported that some Internet youth forums and message boards had messages posted by those who wanted to buy postcards of Lebedev with certain combinations of numbers for 300-500 rubles. According to press reports, a source in the headquarters of Lebedev said that there had been issued 2.7 million of cards issued (i.e. almost all the Moscow apartments amount), and that every tenth of them was "winning". Press wrote that, according to experts, Moscow faced, on the one hand, the most blatant vote-buying program, on the other - the most expensive one.
In early 2005, according to press reports, Lebedev conflicted with Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov who had initiated the arrest of NRK shares owned by the leasing company «Ilyushin Finance Co» (IFC), established to promote the Russian aircraft.
Problems with «Ilyushin Finance Co" appeared in 2003 when more than 50% of the company shares (i.e., the entire non-state package) were arrested. Media wrote that, according to official version, the Prosecutor General's Office appeared to claim the formation of the legal person's own capital. Journalists referring to the information of knowledgeable sources wrote that investigators of the case on “the Ilyushin Finance Co" found sufficient number of facts to bring to trial on fraud in a large scale a well-known businessman and politician Lebedev.
According to press reports, on September 6, 2005 at a press conference Lebedev said he was ready to leave the State Duma and head the board of directors of JSC "Ilyushin Finance Co. (IFC), which 38% (in other sources - 36%) of the shares belonged to the NRC. He said he did not seen any "other way to save the company."
It was reported that on October 27, 2005 Lebedev filed in the Supreme Arbitration Court a claim against the government of Russia, and challenged the arrest of shares of the «Ilyushin Finance» in early 2005. On December 19, 2005 the Supreme Arbitration Court dismissed the Lebedev's claim of 27 October 2005.
In the press there was an opinion that NRC had simply «played for' "IFC" by paying only a quarter of its share of issue of additional issue. NRC argued their actions by «uncertainties in the criminal proceedings."
According to press reports, on May 27, 2007 St. Petersburg hosted the first lottery «Nevskoye bingo"- a joint project of the private businesses and the government in St. Petersburg. That event was directly linked to Alexander Lebedev. In the media there is evidence that the actual owner of the lottery were the structures close to the National Reserve Bank (NRB). So the main fighter against gambling Alexander Lebedev (he has repeatedly proven himself as such) appeared to be involved in this business.
Lebedev, as the media wrote, changed his position and recognized the link between NRC and the drawings taking place in St. Petersburg. "I haven't been aware of it until today, the same as the CEO of the bank hasn't. Maybe it was an initiative of the Petersburg branch of NRB ", he let his hair down to the press.
The media wrote that in June 2006, Lebedev was involved in a conflict between the residents of the micro district in the Southern Butovo and the Moscow authorities which attempted to forcibly relocate residents from their private homes by court decision. It was reported that Lebedev was involved in the conflict on the side of Butovo.
According to the press, Lebedev appeared in the story of the Southern Butovo in the midst of a scandal. In the media a suggestion was made that he had played not the last, if not the main role in the conflict. In some editions he was called the initiator of hype around Butova.
Reporters found out that there was a contract of lease signed between the deputy and a resident of one of the houses slated for demolition Valentina Popova. Media paid noted that the document was signed on April 3, when noone was going to relocate. At the time of eviction the parliamentary immunity of Lebedev spread to the house. It was reported that Popova gave a room to banker Lebedev for six months rent just for 30 rubles monthly.
There is information in the media that Lebedev's participation in Butovo events was likely to be a part of long-planned PR-action against Yuri Luzhkov. Journalists speculated that after taking a thrashing three years ago and losing the election for Mayor of Moscow Lebedev tried to take revenge. In fact the events in Butovo had seriously hit the image of the capital's mayor.
In the summer of 2007, as written in the press, a revising of the terms of many Lebedev' property objects privatization began in Ukraine. It was reported that Ukrainian investigators found that the process of transferring of some state properties into private hands had been carried out with apparent violations. With reference to the data of Ukraine security, the media wrote: there was every reason to believe that resort land had been bought by the businessman on undervalued rate on the basis of some unknown agreement with the Crimean authorities or even with someone higher up.
One example - hotel "Ukraine" in Kiev, the total area about 20 thousand square meters. It is reported that the scandal around the hotel began in 2004 when there were suspicions that 50% of state property had been transferred illegally to the entities controlled by Lebedev. They wrote in the media that the investigation had led the law enforcement to the top of the Ukrainian authorities: Alexander Lebedev's relation with Igor Bakayev, manager of the President Kuchma. With reference to the Ukrainian press, Russian media wrote that under Bakayev the commercial structures (including Lebedev's one) had been sold the state property for an amount approximately to 64 million dollars.
In autumn 2009 the media reported that Ukraine lost the lawsuit on the property of the «Ukraina Hotel» which had lasted throughout the presidency of Viktor Yushchenko. By decision of the Supreme Court, the building passed to the ownership of JSC "Hotel" Ukraine " founded five years ago with participation of the National Reserve Corporation (NRC) by the former Duma deputy Alexander Lebedev.
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